Helicobacter pylori - Gram-negative, spiral to pleomorphic, spiral rod prokaryote. Magnification 2,200, Scanning electron microscope. This bacterium can move by means of tiny flagella at the end of the cell. There are many strains of H. pylori which are distinguished by the human disease with which they cause. H. pylori infection is the main cause of chronic superficial gastritis and it is associated with both gastric and duodenal ulcers. It lives in the interface between the surface of gastric epithelial cells (the lining of the stomach). It often clusters at the junctions of epithelial cells. Courtesy of Dennis Kunkel.
Pichia pastoris, a methylotrophic yeast. Magnification 1600, scanning electron microscopy. This methylotrophic yeast was isolated from nature and can consume methanol as a sole carbon source when glycerol or glucose is not found as a food source. It is a recombinant organism that is used to produce large quantities of specialized proteins. To metabolize methanol Pichia pastoris has an alcohol oxidase (AOX) gene. The P. pastoris expression system uses the methanol-induced alcohol oxidase promoter (AOX1) which controls the gene that codes for the expression of alcohol oxidase (the enzyme which catalyzes the fist step in the metabolism of methanol). Using genetic techniques genes for pharmaceutical proteins can be inserted next to the AOX-gene in Pichia allowing the yeast to produce the protein. A number of proteins have been produced using this system, including tetanus toxin fragment, Bordatella pertussus petactin, human serum albumin and lysozyme. Courtesy of Dennis Kunkel.
By The Science Learning Hub.
Phosphorus is a chemical element found on Earth in numerous compound forms, such as the phosphate ion, located in water, soil and sediments.
By Scientific American.
“Black and Bloom” project explores how microorganisms help to determine the pace of Arctic melting
Microorganisms are essential to our very existence. They are ubiquitous, found in common environments such as soil, water, and air as well as exotic locales as diverse as deep sea hydrothermal vents and soda lime lakes.
Formed to draw together all those interested in Aerobiology in the United Kingdom.
an international organization, promoting the study and application of knowledge of anaerobic bacteriology.